Energy Efficiency of Inference Algorithms for Clinical Laboratory Data Sets: Green Artificial Intelligence Study

Reference Type:

Journal Article

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Published In:

Journal of Medical Internet Research

Year:

2022

Author(s):

Jia-Ruei Yu
Huang Tsung-Wei
Jang-Jih Lu
Chia-Ru Chung
Lin Ting-Wei
Min-Hsien Wu
Yi-Ju Tseng
Wang Hsin-Yao

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Background: The use of artificial intelligence (AI) in the medical domain has attracted considerable research interest. Inference applications in the medical domain require energy-efficient AI models. In contrast to other types of data in visual AI, data from medical laboratories usually comprise features with strong signals. Numerous energy optimization techniques have been developed to relieve the burden on the hardware required to deploy a complex learning model. However, the energy efficiency levels of different AI models used for medical applications have not been studied.
Objective: The aim of this study was to explore and compare the energy efficiency levels of commonly used machine learning algorithms—logistic regression (LR), k-nearest neighbor, support vector machine, random forest (RF), and extreme gradient boosting (XGB) algorithms, as well as four different variants of neural network (NN) algorithms—when applied to clinical laboratory datasets.
Methods: We applied the aforementioned algorithms to two distinct clinical laboratory data sets: a mass spectrometry data set regarding Staphylococcus aureus for predicting methicillin resistance (3338 cases; 268 features) and a urinalysis data set for predicting Trichomonas vaginalis infection (839,164 cases; 9 features). We compared the performance of the nine inference algorithms in terms of accuracy, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), time consumption, and power consumption. The time and power consumption levels were determined using performance counter data from Intel Power Gadget 3.5.
Results: The experimental results indicated that the RF and XGB algorithms achieved the two highest AUROC values for both data sets (84.7% and 83.9%, respectively, for the mass spectrometry data set; 91.1% and 91.4%, respectively, for the urinalysis data set). The XGB and LR algorithms exhibited the shortest inference time for both data sets (0.47 milliseconds for both in the mass spectrometry data set; 0.39 and 0.47 milliseconds, respectively, for the urinalysis data set). Compared with the RF algorithm, the XGB and LR algorithms exhibited a 45% and 53%-60% reduction in inference time for the mass spectrometry and urinalysis data sets, respectively. In terms of energy efficiency, the XGB algorithm exhibited the lowest power consumption for the mass spectrometry data set (9.42 Watts) and the LR algorithm exhibited the lowest power consumption for the urinalysis data set (9.98 Watts). Compared with a five-hidden-layer NN, the XGB and LR algorithms achieved 16%-24% and 9%-13% lower power consumption levels for the mass spectrometry and urinalysis data sets, respectively. In all experiments, the XGB algorithm exhibited the best performance in terms of accuracy, run time, and energy efficiency.
Conclusions: The XGB algorithm achieved balanced performance levels in terms of AUROC, run time, and energy efficiency for the two clinical laboratory data sets. Considering the energy constraints in real-world scenarios, the XGB algorithm is ideal for medical AI applications.