Urban planning and building smart cities based on the Internet of Things using Big Data analytics
The rapid growth in the population density in urban cities demands tolerable provision of services and infrastructure. To meet the needs of city inhabitants. Thus, increase in the request for embedded devices, such as sensors, actuators, and smartphones, etc., which is providing a great business potential towards the new era of Internet of Things (IoT); in which all the devices are capable of interconnecting and communicating with each other over the Internet. Therefore, the Internet technologies provide a way towards integrating and sharing a common communication medium. Having such knowledge, in this paper, we propose a combined IoT-based system for smart city development and urban planning using Big Data analytics. We proposed a complete system, which consists of various types of sensors deployment including smart home sensors, vehicular networking, weather and water sensors, smart parking sensors, and surveillance objects, etc. A four-tier architecture is proposed which include 1) Bottom Tier-1: which is responsible for IoT sources, data generations, and collections 2) Intermediate Tier-1: That is responsible for all type of communication between sensors, relays, base stations, the internet, etc. 3) Intermediate Tier 2: it is responsible for data management and processing using Hadoop framework, and 4) Top tier: is responsible for application and usage of the data analysis and results generated. The system implementation consists of various steps that start from data generation and collecting, aggregating, filtration, classification, preprocessing, computing and decision making. The proposed system is implemented using Hadoop with Spark, voltDB, Storm or S4 for real time processing of the IoT data to generate results in order to establish the smart city. For urban planning or city future development, the offline historical data is analyzed on Hadoop using MapReduce programming. IoT datasets generated by smart homes, smart parking weather, pollution, and vehicle data sets are used for analysis and evaluation. Such type of system with full functionalities does not exist. Similarly, the results show that the proposed system is more scalable and efficient than the existing systems. Moreover, the system efficiency is measured in term of throughput and processing time.
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