Total Energy Model V2.0 for Connected Devices
In June 2019 IEA 4E Electronic Device and Network Annex (EDNA) published the original Total Energy Model, TEM1.0. The purpose in developing TEM1.0 was to provide “a quantitative model of the ‘total energy use’ of connected devices, globally.” TEM1.0 was developed as a flexible tool which could be updated as additional data became available, and expanded to encompass new network technologies and devices associated with the rapidly evolving range of services over the Internet. The overall purpose of the model was to provide a reputable source of energy use information for connected devices for use by energy efficiency policy makers in all jurisdictions. Subsequently 4E EDNA commissioned an expanded version of TEM1.0, the TEM2.0. The TEM1.0 and 2.0 model the energy use by edge network connected devices; wireless and fixed network equipment made up of wired and wireless Local Area Networks and mobile networks; as well as Data Centres and Wide Area Networks. In TEM2.0 uses identical device categories to TEM 1.0: ICT, entertainment, automation and security, and the same sectors: residential, business and public. The TEM1.0 was intended to model the energy use of network connected devices by region however, because of insufficient data being available, the TEM1.0 was limited to a global model. For TEM2.0 regional product sales/stock data was obtained from external sources to EDNA (purchased from Juniper Research). Updated population, household numbers, and fixed broadband data by economy were available from the United Nations and used to match the eight regions characterised in data from Juniper Research. The TEM2.0 expands the conditions of energy consumption. In TEM1.0 energy use was separated into network standby and network active conditions. TEM2.0 introduces streaming media as a third condition, it is the energy consumption associated with streaming video services, and includes the energy consumed by the device used to view the video. New devices are introduced in TEM2.0 increasing the model’s scope, these include: Casting Sticks, Digital Voice Assistants (DVA)-Video Display and DVA-Speaker. Casting Sticks, also referred to as Digital Media Adapters, directly connect to a television for viewing streamed video. Digital Voice Assistants, which are available in two forms, with and without a video display, and often referred to as “smart speakers” and “smart displays”, provide voice control of a range of connected appliances, including Casting Sticks and televisions (which includes Smart TVs and, indirectly, ordinary TVs). The TEM2.0 model provides the ability to evaluate energy consumption scenarios related to policy making in the many TEM2.0 regional jurisdictions. It provides a credible and transparent tool to policy makers to assess the impact of potential voluntary and regulatory measures. The TEM2.0 forecast timeframe is to 2030, the same as used in TEM1.0. The TEM2.0 outputs include the web-based graphical display of the model results, to be publicly accessed on the EDNA website (see https://www.iea-4e.org/edna/charts/). The expanded TEM2.0 methodology employs the same approach for calculating the networkconnected energy use of devices as used in the TEM1.0. It sums the individual energy use by condition for connected devices, and allocates the upstream energy use of the network (DC and WAN) to each device type by region. In TEM2.0 the network-connected regional Annual Energy Consumptio
February 2021 Total Energy Model 2.0 for Connected Devices Page 2 (AECRegion_id) for each type of device is the sum of the network-connected energy consumption of all operating devices installed. The regional upstream energy use is estimated for the DC/WAN component by using the energy consumed per byte of data, the energy intensity, transferred in the DC and WAN, and the data transfer rate. Using the streaming media and non-streaming data transmission rate, the upstream energy use is attributed to the network connected devices, according to each device type as a portion of the DC/WAN energy consumption. The TEM2.0 utilises a number of new data sources, including forecasts of device shipments by region. In addition, research was also conducted to obtain estimates of streaming media power use for Casting Sticks, as well as the estimated time of media streaming operation by device. This report includes a selection of key outputs from the expanded TEM2.0 model including energy consumption of edge devices by condition, and the upstream energy attributed these network connected devices when streaming media or not steaming. Energy consumption of categories of devices and upstream is also shown by region. An example is the total network connected energy consumption comprising upstream IP traffic, including streaming and non-streaming, and connected devices in all conditions is shown below.
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