Technological Innovations for Agricultural Production from an Environmental Perspective: A Review
Information and communication technology (ICT) in developing countries is a key element for growth and economic development. This work conducted an evaluation regarding the use of ICT to reduce the socioeconomic gaps of rural populations and promote its inclusion in development plans, considering its use to guarantee a sustainable development model. For this, a systematic review of 280 articles was carried out using the Scopus, Latindex, Scielo, Dialnet, Redalyc, and Google Scholar databases during the period from 2018 to 2023, of which 40 articles were selected that address the use of ICTs and the agricultural digitalization for the management of soil, water, and the application of fertilizers and agrochemicals, which guarantee sustainable agricultural development. The results show that there are numerous digital tools available based on artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), drones, apps, and the Internet of Things, which aid in soil and water management and make use of agrochemicals and water, thus improving efficiency and reducing pollution problems. However, there is a large gap at the international level in acquiring state-of-the-art technological equipment that takes advantage of the potential that exists in terms of new technologies and their efficient use. Much of the research on the use of ICTs in the agricultural field comes from countries with medium or high levels of technological development, especially from Asia, Europe, or North America. As a result, Latin America lags behind in this regard.
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