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Perseus: Removing Energy Bloat from Large Model Training

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Journal Article

Chung, Jae-Won, Yile Gu, Insu Jang, Luoxi Meng, Nikhil Bansal, and Mosharaf Chowdhury. 2023. “Perseus: Removing Energy Bloat from Large Model Training.”

Training large AI models on numerous GPUs consumes a massive amount of energy. We observe that not all energy consumed during training directly contributes to end-to-end training throughput, and a significant portion can be removed without slowing down training, which we call energy bloat.
In this work, we identify two independent sources of energy bloat in large model training, intrinsic and extrinsic, and propose Perseus, a unified optimization framework that mitigates both. Perseus obtains the "iteration time-energy" Pareto frontier of any large model training job using an efficient iterative graph cut-based algorithm and schedules energy consumption of its forward and backward computations across time to remove intrinsic and extrinsic energy bloat. Evaluation on large models like GPT-3 and Bloom shows that Perseus reduces energy consumption of large model training by up to 30%, enabling savings otherwise unobtainable before.

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