Funding the transition to all zero-emission vehicles
Governments around the world, motivated by the necessities of clean air and a stable climate, actively steer their markets toward all zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs). Among the key questions for governments are what types of support for incentives, infrastructure, and other programs are needed; for how long this need continues; and how the costs compare to the benefits. These questions are about managing the costs across governments, industry, and drivers through the transition to ZEVs. This paper analyzes the costs, benefits, and associated government funding, with the transition to all passenger ZEVs. The research quantifies funding based on incentives that are aligned with declining ZEV costs and the expenditures of exemplary programs in several high-ZEV uptake markets. The relative costs, benefits, and government outlays are analyzed for the transition to all ZEVs in the light-duty vehicle markets of the United States and Germany. We summarize the findings and implications in the following four conclusions.
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