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Encoding Carbon Emission Flow in Energy Management: A Compact Constraint Learning Approach

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Journal Article

Sang, Linwei, Yinliang Xu, and Hongbin Sun. 2024. “Encoding Carbon Emission Flow in Energy Management: A Compact Constraint Learning Approach.” IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy 15 (1): 123–35.

Decarbonizing the energy supply is essential and urgent to mitigate the increasingly visible climate change. Its basis is identifying emission responsibility during power allocation by the carbon emission flow (CEF) model. However, the main challenge of CEF application is the intractable nonlinear relationship between carbon emission and power allocation. So this article leverages the high approximation capability and the mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) representability of the deep neural networks to tackle the complex CEF model in carbon-electricity coordinated optimization. The compact constraint learning approach is proposed to learn the mapping from power injection to bus emission with sparse neural networks (SNNs). Then the trained SNNs are transformed equivalently as MILP constraints in the downstream optimization. In light of the “high emission with high price” principle, the blocked carbon price mechanism is designed to price emissions from the demand side. Based on the constraint learning and mechanism design, this article proposes the carbon-aware energy management model in the tractable MILP form to unlock the carbon reduction potential from the demand side. The case study verifies the approximation accuracy and sparsity of SNN with fewer parameters for accelerating optimization solution and reduction effectiveness of demand-side capability for mitigating emission.

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